990K Steel Mill Arrangement

990K Wheel Loader Steel Mill Arrangement

990K (Steel Mill Arrangement) Large Wheel Loader


Cat Large Wheel Loaders are designed with durability built in, ensuring maximum availability through multiple life cycles. With optimized performance and simplified serviceability, our machines allow you to move more material efficiently and safely at a lower cost per ton. The Cat 990 Wheel Loader has been a proven performer in steel mill applications where larger machines have typically been used. The 990K Steel Mill Arrangement brings all new levels of performance, safety, operator comfort and efficiency in pit digging and skull handling applications.

Cat® C27-Motor:

The Cat C27 engine is built and tested to meet your most demanding applications while meeting Tier 4 Final or Tier 2 equivalent emission standards.

  • Fully integrated electronic engine controls works in concert with the entire machine to make your fuel go farther.
  • Use less fuel idling with Engine Idle Shutdown.
  • Maximized durability with Delayed Engine Shutdown.

Cat Planetary Powershift Transmission

Maximize your uptime with the proven planetary power shift transmission. Improved shift quality, component life and operator comfort with our electronic transmission controls.

Impeller Clutch Torque Converter (ICTC)

Enable your operators to maximize efficiency by varying machine rimpull while putting more horsepower to hydraulics.

  • Reduced tire wear.
  • Enables full throttle shifts for faster cycle times.
  • Provides smooth approach to the dump target for less spillage and faster cycle times.

Cat Torque Converter with Lock-up Clutch

  • Eliminates TC losses while lowering system heat.
  • Improves travel speeds.
  • Reduces cycle times in load and carry operations.

Economy Mode

Enabling maximum productivity and efficiency, all day every day. The 990K systems work hard to save you fuel through advanced technologies. Utilizing On Demand Throttle, operators maintain normal operation with the left pedal and implements while the 990K manages the engine speed.

  • Provides similar control and feel to our traditional throttle lock feature.
  • Efficiency of manual throttle and the ergonomics of throttle lock.

Lift Arms

  • Excellent visibility to the bucket edges and work area through a Z-bar design.
  • High load stresses are absorbed by the solid steel lift arms.
  • Enhance strength in key pin areas through the use of one piece castings.
  • Stress relieved lift arms increase durability and lengthen time to repair.

Front Linkage

To ensure long life and reliability, the linkage pin joints feature a greased pin design with an auto lube system attachment available from the factory.

Steering and Transmission Integrated Control System (STIC™)

Experience maximum responsiveness and control with STIC that combines directional selection, gear selection and steering into a single lever.

  • Simple side-to-side motion turns machine right or left, minimizing operator movements.
  • Easy to operate finger controlled gear selection.
  • Smoother, faster cycles and help reduce operator fatigue through the use of low effort integrated controls.

Cat Planetary Powershift Transmission

Building your success begins with a best-in-class transmission designed specifically for mining applications.

  • Consistent, smooth shifting and efficiency through integrated electronic controls.
  • Long life and reliability through heat treat gear and metallurgy.
  • Three forward and three reverse speeds to match your application.

Cat® C27-Motor

Durability and efficiency at the heart of your 990K comes from the Cat C27 Engine. Optimum performance is built in through the use of a 12 cylinder, direct injection design.

  • Optimized performance and quick engine response with an electronic control module.
  • Reliable efficiency with complete control over injection timing, duration and pressure with Mechanically Actuated Electronic Unit Injection (MEUI™).
  • Extended engine life and improved fuel efficiency with reduced rated speed.
  • Available in two versions: one that meets Tier 4 Final emission standards, and another that meets Tier 2 equivalent emission standards.

Positive Flow Control Hydraulics

Increase efficiency through our Positive Flow Control (PFC) Hydraulic System. PFC has concurrent pump and valve control. By optimizing pump control, hydraulic oil flow is proportionate to implement lever movement.

  • Fast, productive cycles are enabled by the fully variable implement pump.
  • Increase bucket feel and control through increased hydraulic response.
  • Consistent performance and efficiency with lower system heat.
  • Full hydraulic flow down to 1,600 engine rpm.

Electro Hydraulic Controls

Operators increase productivity with our responsive implements feature.

  • Operate comfortably through electronically controlled hydraulic cylinder stops.
  • Handle easy-to-use soft detent controls.
  • Conveniently set automatic implement kickouts from inside the cab.

Steering System

Confident loader operation starts with precise machine control enabled by the 990K's load sensing hydraulic steering system.

  • Increase efficiency with our variable displacement piston pumps.
  • Achieve precise positioning for easy loading in tight areas with 35 degrees of steering articulation.
  • Enhance operator comfort with integrated steering and transmission control functions.

Your operators can work more efficiently and stay comfortable with our customer-inspired cab features.

Control Panel

Ergonomic placement of switches and information display keep your operators comfortable all day every day.

  • Large backlit membrane switches feature LED activation indicators.
  • Switches feature ISO symbols for quick function identification.
  • Two position rocker switch activates the electro hydraulic park brake.
  • Transmission override control switches.


Your operator's productivity is enhanced with our clean, comfortable cab environment.

  • Experience reduced vibrations from isolation cab mounts and seat air suspension.
  • Maintain desired cab temperature with automatic temperature controls.
  • Pressurized cab with filtered air.
  • Sound level reduced to a quiet 69 dB(A).
  • Convenient floor storage tray/lunch box.

The 990K electronic systems have been completely integrated to function as one machine. This integration creates a smart machine and more informed operator, maximizing the productivity of both.

990K Information Display
990K Serviceability

We can help you succeed by ensuring your 990K has design features to reduce your downtime.

  • Safe and convenient service with ground level or platform access and grouped service points.
  • Swing-out doors on both sides of the engine compartment provide easy access to important daily service checks.
  • Ecology drains for ease of service and spill prevention.
  • Reduce downtime with VIMS system notifications so your operators and technicians can resolve any problems before failure.
  • Ground level access to transmission control valves.

Legendary Cat Dealer Support

A valued partner, your Cat dealer is available whenever you need them.

  • Preventive maintenance programs and guaranteed maintenance contracts.
  • Best-in-class parts availability.
  • Improve your efficiency with operator training.
  • Genuine Cat Remanufactured parts.

990K Customer Support


  • Optional heated mirrors ensure enhanced visibility for safe operation.
  • Standard Cat Vision or optional Cat Detect with radar increase operator awareness around the machine.
  • Optional HID or LED lights provide excellent workspace visibility.
  • Optional cab mounted LED warning beacons.

Operator Environment

  • Reduced vibrations to the operator with isolated cab mounts and seat mounted implement and steering controls.
  • Low interior sound levels.
  • Pressurized cab with filtered air.
  • Safely train other operators in comfort with our standard training seat.
  • Standard 76 mm (3 in) seat belts on the operator seat and the standard trainer seat.

Operator Station and Machine Access

A comfortable working environment ready for your attachments.

  • Cab glass mounted in rubber seals for easy replacement.
  • Optional heavy duty cab mounts for installation of after market cab protection systems.
  • Reinforced bumper ready for heavy fire suppression tanks.
  • Damage resistant solid steel rear access steps.


Extra hydraulic capacity and stability for the toughest applications.

  • Over 7800 kg (17,160 lb) of extra counterweight.
  • Larger lift cylinders provide a nearly 15% increase in lift capacity.
  • Tilt cylinder size increased to provide an 18% increase in hydraulic tilt capacity.

Added protection even where you can't see it.

  • Silicone axle seals for extreme temperature operation.
  • Machine electronic control modules located in the cab safe from heat and dust.
  • Reduced rear axle oscillation for tire chain compatibility.
  • Flame resistant EcoSafe hydraulic fluid available as an option.

Serrated Edge Slag Bucket

Serrated spade edge bucket with abrasion resistant material. Excellent penetration combined with weld-on self sharpening serrated segments.

Straight Edge Slag Bucket

Straight edge bucket with K130 tooth adapters and replaceable weld-on segments.

Data from customer machines show Cat wheel loaders are among the most fuel efficient machines in the industry. Several features contribute to this excellent fuel efficiency:

  • Performance Series Buckets – Deliver faster fill times and better material retention, ultimately reducing cycle times while improving productivity and fuel efficiency.
  • Positive Flow Control Hydraulics – Provides only the hydraulic flow required by the implement and steering systems for improved fuel efficiency and greater rimpull.
  • Engine – Advanced engine controls maximize power and efficiency.
  • Economy Mode – Featuring On Demand Throttle, Economy Mode optimizes power for maximum fuel savings with minimal impact on production.
  • Engine Idle Shutdown – Automatic engine and electrical system shutdown conserves fuel.
  • Lock-up Torque Converter – Transfers more power to the ground and optimizes fuel efficiency in all applications.

990K Steel Mill Wheel Loader


  • Robust Structures

    Your bottom line is improved by highly durable structures that achieve multiple life cycles and withstand the toughest loading conditions.

    • Full box-section rear frame resists torsional shock and twisting forces.
    • Heavy-duty steering cylinder mounts efficiently transmit steering loads into the frame.
    • Axle mounting has been optimized for increased structural integrity.

  • Impeller Clutch Torque Converter (ICTC) and Rimpull Control System (RCS)

    Lower your cost per ton utilizing advanced ICTC and RCS for modulated rimpull.

    • Reduce tire slippage and wear by modulating rimpull from 100 to 25 percent while depressing left pedal. After 25 percent rimpull is achieved the left pedal applies the brake.
    • Reduce the potential for wheel slippage without reducing hydraulic efficiency with RCS.
    • Improve fuel efficiency in certain applications with our lock-up clutch torque converter providing direct drive.

  • Filtration System

    Benefit from extended performance and reliability of your hydraulic system with our advanced filtration system.

    • Case drain screens.
    • Hydraulic oil cooler return filter.
    • Pilot filter.
    • Return screens inside hydraulic tank.
    • Axle oil cooler screens if equipped.

  • Entry and Exit

    Enter and exit the cab easily and safely with these newly designed, ergonomic features.

    • Fold up STIC steer/armrest.
    • Reduced access stairway angles.
    • Standard stairway lighting.

  • Cat Comfort Series III Seat

    Enhance comfort and help reduce operator fatigue with Cat Comfort Series III seat.

    • Mid back design and extra thick, contoured cushions.
    • Air suspension system.
    • Easy-to-reach seat levers and controls for six way adjustments.
    • Seat-mounted implement pod and STIC steer that moves with the seat.
    • 76 mm (3 in) wide retractable seat belt.

  • Cat Product Link™

    Cat Product Link allows remote monitoring of equipment to improve overall fleet management effectiveness. Events and diagnostic codes, as well as hours, fuel, idle time and other information are transmitted to a secure web based application, VisionLink®. VisionLink includes powerful tools to convey information to users and dealers, including mapping, working and idle time, fuel level and more.

  • Third Generation VIMS™ System

    We have worked hard to help our customers and operators perform at their best through our Vital Information Management System (VIMS 3G).

    • Easy-to-view graphical information display features a large touch screen interface.
    • Intuitive operation and easy navigation with our enhanced user interface.
    • Decrease service time by keeping operators informed about machine system malfunction or operation.

  • Payload Control System

    Increase your efficiency with our Payload Control System 3.0.

    • Quick payload measurement with on-the-go weighing.
    • Comprehensive record accuracy of machine performance.
    • Optional printer available for cab.

  • Cycle Timer

    Impact your bottom line through improved machine performance with Cycle Timer. Each loading segment time can be analyzed to help you achieve more efficient operation. Features:

    • Production Summary
    • Machine Utilization
    • Productive Cycle Time
    • Loader Payload Summary
    • Fuel Usage Summary

  • We are constantly introducing features on our machines in an effort to enhance safety for the operators.

  • Machine Access

    • Left and right hand stairs with 45 degree angle enhance safety for operators getting on and off the 990K.
    • Continuous walkway with non-skid surfaces are designed into the service areas.
    • Maintain three points of contact at all times through ground level or platform accessible service areas.

  • Machine Protection

    Steel mills can be a harsh environment. Extra guarding for critical machine functions keep your operation running.

    • Exposed wiring and hoses are covered with heat resistant wrapping.
    • Steel guard to protect the tilt cylinder rod from falling debris.
    • Electro hydraulic parking brake override system.
    • Transmission override system for redundancy.
    • Optional guarding for bumper mounted fire suppression tanks.

  • Performance Series Buckets

    Performance Series Buckets feature an optimized profile maximizing material retention and minimizing dig time, translating into significant productivity and fuel efficiency improvements. All 990K buckets are manufactured with the Performance Series design.

  • Slag Buckets

    Extra material and robust design for digging and handling slag.

    • Thicker shell and base edge.
    • Full width rear edge for extra strength.

  • Enhance the productivity of your loader and protect your investment in buckets with our Ground Engaging Tools (GET). Your knowledgeable Cat dealer will work with you to understand your application and needs for the GET that is best for you.

  • Machine configuration, operator technique, and job site layout can impact fuel consumption.

    • Machine Configuration – Select the correct work tool and tire type based on machine application. Ensure proper inflation pressures. Utilize the Economy Mode setting for maximum efficiency.
    • Job Site Layout – Spot loading targets in the right position. Avoid traveling more than 1.5 tire revolutions during truck loading cycles. Reduce transport distance for load and carry cycles by optimizing job site layout.
    • Loading Bucket – Load in first gear. Raise and tilt bucket quickly and do not use a “pumping” motion. Avoid lift lever detent and use impeller clutch.
    • Loading Truck or Hopper – Do not raise the work tool any higher than necessary. Keep engine rpm low and unload in controlled manner.
    • Idle – Set the parking brake to engage Engine Idle Management System.

  • Standard Equipment
  • Optional Equipment
  • Specs
  • Docs

Standard Equipment

  • NOTE
    • Standard and optional equipment may vary. Consult your Cat dealer for details.
    • Air conditioner and heater with automatic temperature control
    • Cab, sound-suppressed pressurized, protective structure (ROPS/FOPS), radio ready for (entertainment) includes antenna, speakers and converter (12V, 10-15 amp)
    • 12V power port for mobile phone or laptop connection
    • Camera, rear vision
    • Cigar lighter and ashtray
    • Coat hook
    • Electro-hydraulic tilt and lift controls (seat mounted)
    • Flip-up armrest
    • Heater and defroster
    • Horn, electric
    • Implement hydraulic lockout
    • Instrumentation, gauges: – Engine coolant temperature – Fuel level – Ground speed – Gear – Hydraulic oil temperature – Speedometer/tachometer – Torque converter temperature
    • Instrumentation, warning indicators: – Action alert system, three category – Automatic transmission model enable status – Brake malfunction – Bucket float status – Delayed engine shutdown status – Engine idle shutdown status – Engine malfunction – Fuel economy mode enable status – Hydraulic lockout – Lock-up clutch enable status – Low fuel level – Parking brake status – Rimpull control enable status – Seatbelt warning – Secondary steering (if equipped) – Throttle lock status – Transmission gear
    • Keypad, control with indicator lights: – Auto trans mode speed range – Auto/manual transmission mode – Fuel economy mode – Implement kickout – Lock-up clutch – Reduced rimpull – Throttle lock
    • Light, dome (cab)
    • Lunchbox and beverage holders
    • Mirrors, rearview (externally mounted)
    • Seat, Cat comfort (cloth) air suspension
    • Seat belt, retractable, 76 mm (3 in) wide
    • STIC control system with steering lock
    • Tinted glass
    • Trainer seat with lap belt
    • Vital Information Management System (VIMS) 3G with graphical information display: external data port, customizable operator profiles, cycle timer, and integral Payload Control System (PCS): – Wet-arm wipers/washers (front, rear and corner) intermittent front wiper
    • Brakes, full hydraulic, enclosed, oil-disc
    • Axle-shaft oil-disc service brake
    • Electro hydraulic parking brake
    • Case drain filters
    • Cat clean emission module (Tier 4 Final only)
    • Demand fan
    • Engine Cat C27
    • Fuel priming pump (electric)
    • Ground level engine shutoff, bumper
    • Mufflers (under hood) (Tier 2 only)
    • Precleaner, engine air intake
    • Radiator, Aluminum Modular (AMR)
    • Separated cooling system
    • Starting aid, (ether) manual override
    • Throttle Lock
    • Torque Converter, Impeller Clutch with lock-up clutch feature and rimpull control system
    • Transmission, 534 mm (21 in) planetary power shift (electronic) (3F/3R)
    • Alarm, back-up
    • Alternator, 150 amp
    • Batteries, maintenance free (2 – 1,400 CCA)
    • Converter, 10/15 amp, 24V to 12V
    • Deutsch component connectors
    • Electrical system, 24V
    • Electronic transmission control
    • Lighting system, halogen (front and rear) lighting, access stairway, engine compartment
    • Starter, electric
    • Starter lockout in bumper
    • Starting receptacle for emergency start
    • Transmission lockout in bumper
    • Automatic bucket tilt/lift kickouts electronically adjustable from cab
    • Axle temperature sensor
    • Battery disconnect and jump start receptacle, bumper
    • Coupling, Caterpillar O-ring face seals
    • Economy mode with on demand throttle
    • Emergency platform egress
    • Engine, crankcase, 500 hour interval with CH4
    • Engine idle management features: – Auto idle kickdown – Delayed engine shutdown – Engine idle shutdown
    • Fenders, steel (front)
    • Guards, crankcase and power train
    • Grouped/labeled lube points
    • Hitch, drawbar with pin
    • Hoses, Cat XT
    • Oil sampling valves
    • Positive flow control hydraulic system
    • Product Link
    • Sight Gauges: hydraulic tanks, steering/fan and implement/brake, and transmission
    • Stairway, left and right rear access
    • Steering, load sensing
    • Toe kicks
    • Vandalism protection caplocks
    • Venturi stack
    • Premixed 50% concentration of extended life coolant with freeze protection to –34° C (–29° F)

Optional Equipment

  • NOTE
    • Standard and optional equipment may vary. Consult your Cat dealer for details.
    • –50° C (–58° F) antifreeze
    • Engine oil change system, high speed, Wiggins
    • Engine block heater 120V or 240V
    • High ambient cooling – software
    • Cab precleaner
    • AM/FM/CD/MP3 radio
    • Satellite Sirius radio with Bluetooth
    • LED warning strobe
    • CB radio ready
    • Window sun shade
    • Front and rear roading fenders
    • Fast fill fuel system (Shaw-Aero)
    • Axle oscillation stop
    • Heavy duty cab mounts



Long Name:
990K Wheel Loader Steel Mill Arrangement
990K Steel Mill Arrangement


Net Power
699 HP / 521 kW
Engine Model
Cat® C27 ™
5.4 in / 137.2 mm
6 in / 152.4 mm
1649.5 in³ / 27.03 l
Torque Rise
18 % / 18 %
Rated Speed - Gross - ISO 14396
752 HP / 561 kW
Rated Speed - Net Power - SAE J1349 - High Ambient
648 HP / 483 kW
Rated Speed
1800 r/min / 1800 r/min
Rated Speed - Net Power - SAE J1349 - Standard Ambient
699 HP / 521 kW
Entspricht EPA Tier 4 Final/Tier 2 (USA)
Peak Torque - 1,200 rpm
2624 lb/ft / 3557 N·m
Gross - ISO 14396
752 HP / 561 kW
Net Power - SAE J1349
699 HP / 521 kW
Rated Speed - Gross - SAE J1995
766 HP / 571 kW

Operating Specifications

Operating Weight
204693 lb / 92848 kg
Rated Payload
17.5 t / 15.88 t
Bucket Capacity Range
8.6 m3-9.2 m3 (11.25 yd3-12.0 yd3)
Rated Payload - Standard
17.5 t / 15.88 t
Cat Truck Match - Standard


Transmission Type
Forward - 1
4.5 mile/h / 7.3 km/h
Forward - 2
8.3 mile/h / 13.3 km/h
Forward - 3
14.2 mile/h / 22.9 km/h
Reverse - 1
4.9 mile/h / 7.9 km/h
Reverse - 2
9.1 mile/h / 14.7 km/h
Reverse - 3
15.5 mile/h / 24.9 km/h
Direct Drive - Reverse 1
5.4 mile/h / 8.7 km/h
Direct Drive - Reverse 2
9.6 mile/h / 15.4 km/h
Direct Drive - Forward 2
8.5 mile/h / 13.7 km/h
Direct Drive - Reverse 3
16.4 mile/h / 26.4 km/h
Direct Drive - Forward 3
15.2 mile/h / 24.5 km/h
Direct Drive - Forward 1
Lock-up disabled

Hydraulic System - Lift/Tilt

Relief Valve Setting - Lift/Tilt
4786 psi / 33000 kPa
Cylinders, Double Acting - Tilt, Bore and Stroke
317.5 mm × 819 mm (12.5 in × 32.2 in)
Lift/Tilt System
Variable displacement piston
Maximum Flow at 1,800 rpm (1)
22.2 gal/min / 84 l/min
Relief Valve Setting - Main
507 psi / 3500 kPa
Maximum Flow at 1,800 rpm (2)
216 gal/min / 817 l/min
Lift/Tilt System - Circuit
Positive flow control
Pilot System
Open loop and pressure reducing
Cylinders, Double Acting - Lift, Bore and Stroke
254 mm × 1264 mm (10.0 in × 49.8 in)

Service Refill Capacities

Fuel Tank
294.3 gal (US) / 1114 l
Cooling System
54.9 gal (US) / 208 l
29.1 gal (US) / 110 l
Differential - Final Drives - Rear
68.9 gal (US) / 261 l
Hydraulic Tank - Steering and Braking
34.9 gal (US) / 132 l
Differential - Final Drives - Front
71.6 gal (US) / 271 l
Engine Crankcase
20 gal (US) / 75.7 l
Hydraulic Tank - Implement and Hydraulic Fan
68.9 gal (US) / 261 l
Hydraulic System Factory Fill
210 gal (US) / 795 l


Bucket Capacities
8.6-9.2 m3 (11.2-12.0 yd3)


Oscillation Angle


SAE J1473 OKT90, ISO 3450:1992

Hydraulic System - Steering

Relief Valve Setting - Steering
4641 psi / 32000 kPa
Steering System - Pump
Piston, variable displacement
Maximum Flow at 1,400 rpm
94.5 gal/min / 358 l/min
Steering System - Circuit
Pilot, load sensing
Total Steering Angle

Hydraulic Cycle Times

9.4 s / 9.4 s
2.9 s / 2.9 s
Rack Back
4.8 s / 4.8 s
3.7 s / 3.7 s
Lower Float Down
3.6 s / 3.6 s

Sound Performance - Standard

Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008)
69 dB(A) / 69 dB(A)
Machine Sound Level (ISO 6395:2008)
115 dB(A) / 115 dB(A)

Sound Performance - Suppression

Machine Sound Level (ISO 6395:2008)
113 dB(A) / 113 dB(A)
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008)
69 dB(A) / 69 dB(A)

Dimensions - Standard Lift - Approximate

Reach - Maximum Lift
7.2 ft / 2193 mm
Ground to Top of ROPS
17.2 ft / 5240 mm
Clearance at Maximum Lift
13.4 ft / 4077 mm
Maximum Overall Length
41.8 ft / 12733 mm
Ground to Top of Hood
12.7 ft / 3862 mm
Wheel Base
15.1 ft / 4600 mm

Hydraulic Cycle Times

Total Hydraulic Cycle Time - Empty Bucket
15.9 s / 15.9 s

Dimensions - Standard Lift - Approximate

Ground to Lower Hitch Clearance
2 ft / 596 mm
B-Pin Height - Maximum Lift
19.2 ft / 5867 mm
Rear Axle - Centerline to Bumper
12.5 ft / 3795 mm
Ground to Center of Front Axle
3.9 ft / 1186 mm
Ground to Bumper Clearance
3.5 ft / 1079 mm
Dump Angle at Maximum Lift
47.4 degrees
Rack Back Angle - Carry
48.8 degrees
Front Axle Centerline to Bucket Tip
14.2 ft / 4338 mm
Rack Angle at Maximum Lift
63.7 degrees
Maximum Overall Height - Bucket Raised
27 ft / 8231 mm
Ground to Top of Exhaust Stacks
16.6 ft / 5049 mm


Travel speeds based on Michelin 45/65R39 LD D2**L5 tires.

Dimensions - Standard Lift - Approximate

Rack Back Angle - Ground Level
40.4 degrees